The Proto-Indo-Europeans were a prehistoric ethnolinguistic group in Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the precursor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction. The resulting Indo-European language is the mother tongue of many modern languages. Indo-European includes most of the languages of Europe, as well as the languages of the northern Indian subcontinent and of the Iranian plateau. The Indo-European family is divided into several branches or subfamilies, the most important of which are the Indo-Iranian, Germanic, Romance and Balto-Slavic groups. The most popular individual languages are Spanish, English, Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu), Portuguese, Persian, Bengali, Marathi, Punjabi, German and Russian.
The knowledge of Indo-European rests mainly on this linguistic reconstruction, as well as on the physical evidence of archaeology and archaeogenetics. The Proto-Indo-Europeans probably lived at the end of the Neolithic period, i.e. around the 4th century BC. Chr. millennium v. Chr. The main stream of Chr. Fellowship places them in the Pontic-Caspian steppe zone of Eastern Europe (present-day Ukraine and southern Russia). In the same regions we find the oldest evidence of ritual use of cannabis, dating from the same period. It was a technique of religious ecstasy that is still found thousands of years later in various Indo-European sites.
In 2016, many news articles appeared with titles such as Were the Founders of Western Civilization Prehistoric Drug Dealers (New Scientists); Was Marijuana the Original Cash Crop? The amazing 5,000 year old cannabis trade: The nomads of the Eurasian steppes were the first traders in edible products (Ancient Origins); all this is based on the multi-volume scientific work Cannabis in Eurasia: The Origins of Human Use and the Transcontinental Connections of the Bronze Age (Tengwen, Wagner, Demske, Leipe, Tarasov, 2016), published in Vegetation History and Archaeobotany*, which details the primary role of cannabis in the trade, tradition, and spread of Indo-European culture. The above data on the role of cannabis in the emergence of Western culture should therefore not be underestimated. This archaeology has shown how the proto-Indo-European pit culture introduced cannabis to Europe. The ritual use of cannabis in burial rites in the region inhabited by the Yamna dates back at least 5,000 years, as evidenced by the discovery of skeletal remains and burnt cannabis seeds in a burial mound at a modern cemetery in Gurbaneşti, Romania. (Rosetti, 1959).
Similar evidence that proto-Hindu Europeans burned cannabis in a cave in Ukraine for 5,500 years was provided by the late British archaeologist Andrew Sherratt, who also suggested that the cultivation of navel paraphernalia was evidence that cannabis drinking was used during the Neolithic. Cord culture encompassed a broad archaeological horizon in Europe, between homeland and homeland. 3100 V. CHR. – about 2350 B.C., the end of the Early Bronze Age. Sherratt suggested that hemp ropes pressed into clay, like the poppy-shaped containers used to hold opium preparations, were used not only for decoration but also to indicate their contents, and that cannabis-based drinks were widely available throughout Europe.
The late British archaeologist Andrew Sherratt documented the use of tripod bowls, which he said had been around since 3,500 BC. Chr. were in use. Chr. were used to burn cannabis in Ukraine, which is proven by the charred seeds. The authors of the Encyclopaedia of Indo-European Culture point out that hemp was not only extracted from cemeteries in Romania, but also from a cemetery in Gurbanesti (Maldova), where traces were found in an incense burner (it was believed that a cup with small feet was used to burn an aromatic substance). It was found in a similar context in an early Bronze Age cemetery in the North Caucasus…… The pottery was more elaborate than that of the Yamma culture and included, especially in the female burials, cheap vases interpreted as incense burners, probably used in rituals involving a narcotic such as cannabis (Mallory, et al, 1997). Thus, it appears that burning cannabis as a drug is a tradition that dates back some five to six thousand years and was central to the social and religious rituals of pastoral peoples in Central Eurasia in prehistory and early history (Sherratt, 1995).
Sherratt suggests that the previously mentioned households that burned cannabis eventually switched to drinking, although he believes that cannabis use continued during this cultural shift. The disappearance of ceramic fire pots in northern and western Europe was followed by the appearance of… prominent forms of ceramic drinking utensils. Hemp pots and early bell jars are decorated with twisted cord motifs: If they are hemp fibres, the decoration may indicate that the contents were associated with cannabis (Sherratt, 1995). An opinion shared by other researchers: Since cannabis may also play a role, i.e. as a constituent of drinking, it has also been suggested that the spread of threadlike pottery (hemp?) from the steppe to the west may be part of the same complex (Mallory et al. 1997).
In Hattemerbroek, in the province of Gelderland, traces of cannabis were found in a grave where the body had been laid with flowers. In addition, a grave was found which showed signs of cord culture, with drinking cups dating from 2459 to 2203 BC. Chr.
As the authors of the comprehensive Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture note, there are at least three time horizons to which the spread of hemp can be attributed: the early spread of hemp throughout Europe; during the Neolithic period around 5000 B.C.; and during the Neolithic period around 1700 B.C. Chr. or earlier; the later spread of hemp for presumably narcotic purposes around 3000 BC. Chr.; and the later spread of hemp in the early 20th century. Chr. This was followed by a later spread or at least the resurgence of hemp in the textile industry in the first millennium BC. Chr. Chr. ….. (Mallory et al., 1997). As for the connection to funeral rites. Celtic cannabis use has also been demonstrated by the analysis of shell pollen from the grave of a wealthy woman of the late Hallstatt period in Niedererlbach, Bavaria (Rosch, 2005). The authors of the Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture also note that hemp has been found in Iron Age contexts in Western Europe, such as. B. in the presumably Celtic cemetery Gallstatt near Hochdorf, Germany (Mallory et al., 1997). Cannabis has also been found in later Viking tombs.
More recently, Russian researchers have made similar suggestions, including the Aryan ancestors of the Vedic Indians. In the article Aryan settlements in the Urals : Forerunners of Indian civilization – strong archaeological evidence suggests that the Aryans lived in Arkaim, in the Urals, before coming to India via Central Asia. Archaeologist Sergei Malyutin is quoted in the article:
According to Malyutin, the Aryans came from the west, probably from the Volga, and then migrated to Central Asia and then to India. He believes that their sacred drink was cannabis, boiled in milk with the addition of ephedrine [i.e. ephedra].
Why do you think it was the same Aryans who later came to India and Iran? I’ll ask Sergei Malyutin.
The Rigveda and the Avesta contain descriptions of where the Aryans came from – there are birch trees and a climate similar to ours, he says. They had similar burials, and the skeletons were of the Indo-European anthropological type….. There is another crucial feature – chariots, which were only used by Aryans at the time. (Konstantinov, 2012) [emphasis added].
It is this great mobility that led to the spread of hemp in the ancient world. Indeed, the development of hemp rope is linked to the conjugation and domestication of the horse. Victor Sarianidi of the BMAC, where it was stated that 4,000-year-old archaeological finds of cannabis and ephedra, and in some cases opium poppy, at the temple site indicate that these plants were used for the preparation of soma/haoma. Or perhaps he arrived at his theories of Aryanism on the basis of another group that came from the Russian steppes and spread throughout much of the ancient world, to Western Europe, Persia, Israel, Egypt, India, and even as far away as central China, a series of Indo-European tribes that we know today as the Scythians. Like us, this group plays an important role in understanding the mysterious identity of Soma and Chaoma.
Cannabis was also part of the first trade routes that we know of, as in the case of cannabis in Eurasia: The origin of human consumption and the transcontinental connections of the Bronze Age are mentioned, suggesting that it would have been an integral part of an Aryan migration. The marked increase in reported cases of angina in East Asia, from about 5000 to 4000 BP, may be associated with the establishment of a trans-Eurasian exchange/migration network. (Eurasia is the largest continent on the planet, comprising all of Europe and Asia).
Descendants of the cannabis distillers from the Ukrainian region, the Scythians, later spread the cultivated use of cannabis, both burned as incense and consumed, and the root word kana throughout much of the ancient world. One of the names of the Scythians is Khaomavarga, collectors of chaoma, and the ancient texts say that they also burned and drank chaoma. A Scythian wine well with traces of cannabis tincture was also discovered, as well as golden cups described by Russian archaeologists involved in the discovery as ritual vessels for drinking gaom, which contained cannabis and opium residues. Indo-Europeans in China, known as the Gushi, also burned cannabis in Scythian-type funeral rites 2,800 years ago, a ritual act that can be traced back to the proto-Indo-European homeland in Romania 5,000 years ago.
In my book Cannabis and Soma Solution, I proposed that the combined sacramental use of soma and gaoma stemmed from the common Indo-European origins of the Vedic and Avestic authors, as well as from the earlier widespread cultural and cultic use of cannabis. Cannabis was a sacrament of our ancestors, and we have a collective natural right of indigenous peoples to access this gift of nature.
For more details, see – Cannabis Soma/Haoma Theory: Synopsis based on recent textual and archaeological evidence.
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